National Media Council (NMC)
Established by Law 382/1994, the NMC is composed of ten members; five of whom are elected by the Parliament and five designated by the Council of Ministers. The NMC’s role is to monitor the performance of media bodies, submit to the Ministry of Information reports on TV and radio programs and news content, submit recommendations to the Council of Ministers, work on developing new laws and regulations, and conduct studies on licensing requests.
The NMC is often criticized for its highly conservative line and its lack of effectiveness. It is believed that the members are chosen mainly along sectarian and political affiliation lines.
The Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA)
The TRA of Lebanon started to operate in 2007. An independent public institution, the TRA was established by the Telecommunications Law No. 431 of 2002 and is in charge of liberalizing, regulating, and developing telecommunications in Lebanon. As such, the TRA is supposed to issue licenses, regulations, and decisions. It manages the telecommunications spectrum and monitors the market for any abuse of dominant position and anti-competitive practices. The TRA can take remedial action when necessary. However, a decision by the State Shura Council in 2011 and by the Minister of Telecommunications in 2015 suspended the TRA. Its powers have been effectively transferred to the Ministry of Telecommunications.